We have barely scratched the surface! There's lots of stuff left for you to explore.
NOTE: If you're reading this, and you'd like to help add examples or exercises to the Discovery book for any of the items below, or any other relevant embedded topics, we'd love to have your help!
Please open an issue if you would like to help, but need assistance or mentoring for how to contribute this to the book, or open a Pull Request adding the information!
These topics discuss strategies for writing embedded software. Although many problems can be solved in different ways, these sections talk about some strategies, and when they make sense (or don't make sense) to use.
All our programs executed a single task. How could we achieve multitasking in a system with no OS, and thus no threads. There are two main approaches to multitasking: preemptive multitasking and cooperative multitasking.
In preemptive multitasking a task that's currently being executed can, at any point in time, be preempted (interrupted) by another task. On preemption, the first task will be suspended and the processor will instead execute the second task. At some point the first task will be resumed. Microcontrollers provide hardware support for preemption in the form of interrupts.
In cooperative multitasking a task that's being executed will run until it reaches a suspension point. When the processor reaches that suspension point it will stop executing the current task and instead go and execute a different task. At some point the first task will be resumed. The main difference between these two approaches to multitasking is that in cooperative multitasking yields execution control at known suspension points instead of being forcefully preempted at any point of its execution.
All our programs have been continuously polling peripherals to see if there's anything that needs to be done. However, sometimes there's nothing to be done! At those times, the microcontroller should "sleep".
When the processor sleeps, it stops executing instructions and this saves power.
It's almost always a good idea to save power so your microcontroller should be
sleeping as much as possible. But, how does it know when it has to wake up to
perform some action? "Interrupts" (see below for what exactly those are)
are one of the events that wake up the microcontroller but there are others
wfe are the instructions that make the processor "sleep".
Microcontrollers (like our nRF52/nRF51) have many capabilities. However, many share similar capabilities that can be used to solve all sorts of different problems.
These topics discuss some of those capabilities, and how they can be used effectively in embedded development.
This peripheral is a kind of asynchronous
memcpy. If you are working with
a micro:bit v2 you have actually already used this, the HAL does this for you
with the UARTE and TWIM peripherals. A DMA peripheral can be used to perform bulk
transfers of data. Either from RAM to RAM, from a peripheral, like a UARTE, to RAM
or from RAM to a peripheral. You can schedule a DMA transfer, like read 256 bytes
from UARTE into this buffer, leave it running in the background and then poll some
register to see if it has completed so you can do other stuff while the transfer
is ongoing. For more information as to how this is implemented you can checkout the
serial_setup module from the UART chapter. If that isn't enough yet you could even
try and dive into the code of the
In order to interact with the real world, it is often necessary for the microcontroller to respond immediately when some kind of event occurs.
Microcontrollers have the ability to be interrupted, meaning when a certain event occurs, it will stop whatever it is doing at the moment, to instead respond to that event. This can be very useful when we want to stop a motor when a button is pressed, or measure a sensor when a timer finishes counting down.
Although these interrupts can be very useful, they can also be a bit difficult to work with properly. We want to make sure that we respond to events quickly, but also allow other work to continue as well.
In Rust, we model interrupts similar to the concept of threading on desktop Rust
programs. This means we also must think about the Rust concepts of
when sharing data between our main application, and code that executes as part of
handling an interrupt event.
In a nutshell, PWM is turning on something and then turning it off periodically while keeping some proportion ("duty cycle") between the "on time" and the "off time". When used on a LED with a sufficiently high frequency, this can be used to dim the LED. A low duty cycle, say 10% on time and 90% off time, will make the LED very dim wheres a high duty cycle, say 90% on time and 10% off time, will make the LED much brighter (almost as if it were fully powered).
In general, PWM can be used to control how much power is given to some electric device. With proper (power) electronics between a microcontroller and an electrical motor, PWM can be used to control how much power is given to the motor thus it can be used to control its torque and speed. Then you can add an angular position sensor and you got yourself a closed loop controller that can control the position of the motor at different loads.
We have used the microcontroller pins as digital outputs, to drive LEDs. But these pins can also be configured as digital inputs. As digital inputs, these pins can read the binary state of switches (on/off) or buttons (pressed/not pressed).
(spoilers reading the binary state of switches / buttons is not as straightforward as it sounds ;-) )
There are a lot of digital sensors out there. You can use a protocol like I2C and SPI to read them. But analog sensors also exist! These sensors just output a voltage level that's proportional to the magnitude they are sensing.
The ADC peripheral can be used to convert that "analog" voltage level, say
Volts, into a "digital" number, say in the
[0, 65535] range, that the processor
can use in its calculations.
As you might expect a DAC is exactly the opposite of ADC. You can write some
digital value into a register to produce a voltage in the
[0, 3.3V] range
3.3V power supply) on some "analog" pin. When this analog pin is
connected to some appropriate electronics and the register is written to at some
constant, fast rate (frequency) with the right values you can produce sounds or
This peripheral can be used to track time in "human format". Seconds, minutes, hours, days, months and years. This peripheral handles the translation from "ticks" to these human friendly units of time. It even handles leap years and Daylight Save Time for you!
- SPI, abstracted within the
spimodule and implemented by the
- I2S, currently not abstracted within the
embedded-halbut implemented by the
- Ethernet, there does exist a small TCP/IP stack named
smoltcpwhich is implemented for some chips but the ones on the micro:bit don't feature an Ethernet peripheral
- USB, there is some experimental work on this, for example with the
- Bluetooth, there does exist an incomplete BLE stack named
rubblewhich does support nrf chips.
- SMBUS, neither abstracted in
embedded-halnor implemented by the
nrf52-halat the moment.
- CAN, neither abstracted in
embedded-halnor implemented by the
nrf52-halat the moment
- IrDA, neither abstracted in
embedded-halnor implemented by the
nrf52-halat the moment
Different applications use different communication protocols. User facing applications usually have a USB connector because USB is a ubiquitous protocol in PCs and smartphones. Whereas inside cars you'll find plenty of CAN "buses". Some digital sensors use SPI, others use I2C and others, SMBUS.
If you happen to be interested in developing abstractions in the
implementations of peripherals in general, don't be shy to open an issue in the HAL
repositories. Alternatively you could also join the Rust Embedded matrix channel
and get into contact with most of the people who built the stuff from above.
These topics cover items that are not specific to our device, or the hardware on it. Instead, they discuss useful techniques that could be used on embedded systems.
As part of our Punch-o-meter exercise, we used the Accelerometer to measure changes in acceleration in three dimensions. But there are other motion sensors such as gyroscopes, which allows us to measure changes in "spin" in three dimensions.
This can be very useful when trying to build certain systems, such as a robot that wants to avoid tipping over. Additionally, the data from a sensor like a gyroscope can also be combined with data from accelerometer using a technique called Sensor Fusion (see below for more information).
While some motors are used primarily just to spin in one direction or the other, for example driving a remote control car forwards or backwards, it is sometimes useful to measure more precisely how a motor rotates.
Our microcontroller can be used to drive Servo or Stepper motors, which allow for more precise control of how many turns are being made by the motor, or can even position the motor in one specific place, for example if we wanted to move the arms of a clock to a particular direction.
The micro:bit contains two motion sensors: an accelerometer and a magnetometer. On their own these measure: (proper) acceleration and (the Earth's) magnetic field. But these magnitudes can be "fused" into something more useful: a "robust" measurement of the orientation of the board. Where robust means with less measurement error than a single sensor would be capable of.
This idea of deriving more reliable data from different sources is known as sensor fusion.
So where to next? There are several options:
- You could check out the examples in the
microbitboard support crate. All those examples work for the micro:bit board you have.
- You could join the Rust Embedded matrix channel, lots of people who contribute or work on embedded software
hang out there. Including for example the people who wrote the
- If you are looking for a general overview of what is available in Rust Embedded right now check out the Awesome Rust Embedded list
- You could check out Real-Time Interrupt-driven Concurrency. A very efficient preemptive multitasking framework that supports task prioritization and dead lock free execution.
- You could check out more abstractions of the
embedded-halproject and maybe even try and write your own platform agnostic driver based on it.
- You could try running Rust on a different development board. The easiest way to get started is to
cortex-m-quickstartCargo project template.
- You could try out this motion sensors demo. Details about the implementation and source code are available in this blog post.
- You could check out this blog post which describes how Rust type system can prevent bugs in I/O configuration.
- You could check out japaric's blog for miscellaneous topics about embedded development with Rust.
- You could join the Weekly driver initiative and help us write generic drivers on top of the
embedded-haltraits and that work for all sorts of platforms (ARM Cortex-M, AVR, MSP430, RISCV, etc.)